German Nico Rosberg eased to victory in a chaotic Belgian Formula One Grand Prix on Sunday.The Mercedes driver crossed the line 14.1 seconds ahead of Red Bull’s Daniel Ricciardo.World championship leader Lewis Hamilton, starting on the back row of the grid after taking a 55-place engine-related grid penalty, clawed his way back up the field to finish third.Rosberg’s sixth win of the season cut team mate Hamilton’s lead in the standings to nine points with eight races remaining.The race was briefly halted in the early stages after a massive crash for Renault’s Kevin Magnussen.The Dane was taken to hospital for routine checks after suffering a cut to his left ankle in the high-speed crash.The Dane lost control of his car as he crested the fast uphill sweep of the Eau Rouge corner and slammed violently into the barriers.Magnussen, who had started 12th, got out of the car on his own but was limping slightly. He underwent checks at the medical centre before being taken to hospital.“He is fully conscious and responsive,” Renault said in a statement.“He has a small cut to the left ankle and has been escorted to a nearby hospital for further routine checks.”Magnussen’s crash prompted a temporary halt to the race as marshals worked to repair tyre barriers damaged in the impact.Driver and Constructor Standings after the Formula One Belgian Grand Prix Drivers Points 1. Lewis Hamilton (Britain) Mercedes 2322. Nico Rosberg (Germany) Mercedes 2233. Daniel Ricciardo (Australia) Red Bull 1514. Sebastian Vettel (Germany) Ferrari 1285. Kimi Raikkonen (Finland) Ferrari 1246. Max Verstappen (Netherlands) Red Bull 1157. Valtteri Bottas (Finland) Williams 628. Sergio Perez (Mexico) Force India 589. Nico Huelkenberg (Germany) Force India 4510. Felipe Massa (Brazil) Williams 3911. Fernando Alonso (Spain) McLaren 3012. Carlos Sainz Jr (Spain) Toro Rosso 3013. Romain Grosjean (France) Haas 2814. Daniil Kvyat (Russia) Toro Rosso 2315. Jenson Button (Britain) McLaren 1716. Kevin Magnussen (Denmark) Renault 617. Pascal Wehrlein (Germany) Manor 118. Stoffel Vandoorne (Belgium) McLaren 119. Esteban Gutierrez (Mexico) Haas 020. Jolyon Palmer (Britain) Renault 021. Marcus Ericsson (Sweden) Sauber 022. Felipe Nasr (Brazil) Sauber 023. Rio Haryanto (Indonesia) Manor 024. Esteban Ocon (France) Manor 0 Constructors Points 1. Mercedes 4552. Red Bull – TAG Heuer 2743. Ferrari 2524. Force India – Mercedes 1035. Williams-Mercedes 1016. McLaren 487. Toro Rosso – Ferrari 458. Haas – Ferrari 289. Renault 610. Manor – Mercedes 111. Sauber – Ferrari 0
1 Desperate times call for desperate measures, according to some Liverpool fans.So that is why the club have signed QPR defender Steven Caulker on loan for the rest of the season.In July, Southampton snapped up the centre-back on a season-long loan, but has not played for the club since 2 December when they were thrashed 6-1 by Liverpool in the Capital One Cup.However, with the Reds losing a number of senior defenders to injury, manager Jurgen Klopp is looking for reinforcements.Here is a selection of tweets from football fans responding to the rumour before the club confirmed he was a Liverpool player. Steven Caulker has not played for Southampton since December when the Saints were thrashed 6-1 by Liverpool
Emsden said several community groups support the Aqua Line. Moreover, she said all lines should be named for a color for consistency and that those colors should contrast with the current, red, blue and green line designations. The idea of the Aqua Line first emerged during the 2000 Democratic National Convention when guerrilla artists tried to rile up NIMBYs by posting up prank signs of an Aqua Line to the Westside. The name resonated. “It just fits. The alternative, to call it rose? Well, it doesn’t go to Pasadena where the Rose Parade and the Rose Bowl are. It seems a perfect color for a branch of the Blue Line that goes to the ocean in Santa Monica passing aqua-colored landmarks, like Ballona Creek, the Convention Center,” said Darrell Clarke, co-chairman of Friends 4 Expo Transit, who helped generate 135 e-mails in support of the Aqua Line. The proposal is part of a broader plan to provide more consistency and clarification to a number of transit lines by assigning them colors. Included in the plan is the renaming of one leg of the Red Line to the Purple Line. The MTA says passengers are too easily confused by the 17-mile line, which is really two separate lines. One runs from Union Station to the intersection of Wilshire Boulevard and Western Avenue and the other operates from Union Station to Hollywood, finally jumping over to the San Fernando Valley. The Purple Line designation would be made if the MTA board passes the staff’s proposal tonight. email@example.com (818) 713-3741160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREFrumpy Middle-aged Mom: My realistic 2020 New Year’s resolutions. Some involve doughnuts.Other Metropolitan Transportation Authority officials and their supporters say the new line should be named after a color just like all the other subway lines. That color, they argue, should be aqua. “We have done all the outreach and we have no objections. At a certain point we want to move forward. Of all the lines, this is the one we have had the most feedback and the overwhelming majority is in favor of aqua,” said Maya Emsden, deputy executive officer of creative services. Parks opposes any plan to name the $640 million rail line after the color of the sea, partly because the transit-dependent community it will run through already knows it as the Expo Line and also because it could take years before the agency builds the line to the ocean. “If you take 10 to 15 years to brand something in the mind of the public, why would you alter it to fit some color-coordinated booklet when it has nothing to do with the name of the line,” he said. He argues there was not enough community input, but agency officials said that during 76 community meetings the public had plenty of time to comment. Plans are on track for the MTA’s Exposition light rail line, but officials still have to designate a color for it and the discussion hasn’t been rosy. A leading faction of transport officials and the public wants to call it the Aqua Line – a proposal that looks set to be approved today by the MTA board. But that prospect is giving City Councilman Bernard Parks the blues. Parks wants to name the 8.5-mile line from the University of Southern California to Culver City the Expo line after Exposition Park. He thinks its color on maps should be rose – like the colors of the Exposition Rose Garden in front of the Natural History Museum.
Watching the 2nd half of last nights #imaceleb and loving the Jungle Arms karaoke 😂 Harry’s singing ability is ‘unique’! Lol— Ali (@ali_bumgo) December 6, 2018 We’ve seen Harry Redknapp attempt to create his own songs on I’m a Celebrity Get Me Out of Here, including Peng ting called Sandra he performed with Fleur East and Malique Thompson-Dwyer.But last night’s episode saw him take on Frank Sinatra’s classic My Way as the celebs were treated to a night of karaoke in a make-shift pub. If you want a job doing, keep Harry out the way. #ImACeleb pic.twitter.com/dTpfZ3aLHn— I’m A Celebrity… (@imacelebrity) December 5, 2018 *Crickets drop*“Is this called The Cricketers Arms?”*Beetles drop*“Someone said The Beatles were here tonight.”Harry’s on fire today! 😂 #ImACeleb— I’m A Celebrity… (@imacelebrity) December 5, 2018The beginning of the series saw Harry tell his camp-mates that his wife Sandra has nicknamed him ‘Mr Pastry’ as he has a way of messing up simple tasks – which include the time how he jet-washed his wife’s plants!And Harry well and truly lived up to his name at the start of last night’s episode when he managed to drop a chopping board down a ditch but his camp-mates saw the funny side and it was retrieved the next morning.Don’t ever change Harry! Watching Harry Redknapp doing karaoke in the jungle has made my day— nadine (@nadinebullman) December 6, 2018 Fleur is LOVING Haraoke.@Redknapp @FleurEast @ImACelebrity #ImACeleb pic.twitter.com/ZI9iEYPDLH— ITV (@ITV) December 5, 2018Get the I’m A Celeb gossip every day with Jamie East’s brand new behind-the-scenes podcastComing from someone who can’t sing and has no musical expertise, I’m not going to make a judgement on how Harry performed, but he rather appropriately did the song his way with his cockney accent breaking through during the performance and these fans certainly gave their opinion on Twitter. Can I do karaoke with Harry please whilst we eat jam roly polys #ImACeleb— Lucy Critchett (@lucycritchett) December 6, 2018If you haven’t seen it then it’s well worth a look.It marked a lovely end to the episode which saw the celebs spend the evening at ‘The Jungle Arms’ – a pub with an I’m a Celeb twist.Harry attempted the floss dance earlier in the series and in last night’s show, he had a go at grinding!It was hard to watch at points but Harry admitted that’s only something for younger people! Below you can see the clip of him ‘grinding’ as the celebs had a ball at the pub. @imacelebrity Harry Redknapp on karaoke – Britain’s version of @WilliamShatner #ImACeleb— James Donnelly (@Jayke1981) December 6, 2018 The Jungle Arms is popping OFF tonight! #ImACeleb pic.twitter.com/tS0LkTijtm— I’m A Celebrity… (@imacelebrity) December 5, 2018However, Harry’s party was put on hold as the celebs could only get into the pub once they answered a pub quiz style question correctly.He was the last in after getting his answer right at the third time of asking but these setbacks didn’t prevent Harry from cracking out the jokes.The celebs were made to queue to get into The Jungle Arms and while they were standing in line they had all sorts of bugs and jungle critters dropped on them.And when the crickets and beetles were dropped on the celebs, Harry was quick as ever to make a hilarious quip about the situation. I NEED to do karaoke with Harry Redknapp and John Barrowman 😂— P (@PJsaint) December 6, 2018
Ronaldo warned Lukaku how hard scoring goals in Serie A would be before Inter move Latest Football News REVEALED huge blow A dismal 3-1 defeat to Liverpool on Sunday proved to be the final straw, and Ferdinand believes Mourinho had taken the club as far as he could.The former United defender said on Instagram: “Jose Mourinho Leaves @manchesterunited Right now is the right time.. things aren’t improving & he has taken it as far as he can…“I was one of his biggest advocates 2 & half years ago when he joined the club & felt he stabilised #mufc when we needed it…“You can’t ignore what Jose has achieved as a manager previously but I feel the time has come for fresh ideas at #MUFC…!“People have been critical of my comments on TV of late but as a fan I am saying it as I see it. The club needs an injection of positivity & hopefully this decision will allow that to happen.”Meanwhile, Gary Neville believes Mauricio Pochettino would be the perfect replacement for Mourinho. BEST OF Every time Ally McCoist lost it on air in 2019, including funny XI reactions United announced that they will appoint a caretaker manager until the end of the season while they look for a long-term boss.It is understood United are considering their former striker Ole Gunnar Solskjaer, currently manager of Molde, with regard to the caretaker role, and Pochettino is believed to be the main target to take over next summer.Former United captain Neville said on Sky Sports: “When I look at the values of Manchester United, you look at Mauricio Pochettino’s belief in young players at (previous club) Southampton and with Tottenham.“You look at his performance levels and the style of play, the way in which he carries himself at all times.“People suggest he hasn’t won a trophy yet at Tottenham but with a net spend of minus £29million or something over the last four years, I’m not sure he could have done more.“I do think he is the person who is the outstanding candidate.” MONEY Oxlade-Chamberlain suffers another setback as Klopp confirms serious injury Which teams do the best on Boxing Day in the Premier League era? 2 Where Ancelotti ranks with every Premier League boss for trophies won REVEALED RANKED ADVICE Top nine Premier League free transfers of the decade Rio Ferdinand believes the time was right for Manchester United to sack Jose Mourinho.The Portuguese manager left his job at Old Trafford on Tuesday morning after overseeing the club’s worst start to a top-flight season in 28 years. Rio Ferdinand has had his say Forbes list reveals how much Mayweather, Ronaldo and Messi earned this decade Neville has backed Pochettino for the job 2 no dice Son ban confirmed as Tottenham fail with appeal to overturn red card
RetroFest attracts record number of classic vehicles RM 40th anniversary brings C-K back with some classic rides Kid Rock helps kick off RM 40th anniversary weekend C-K Mayor gets hair tattoo to raise $10K The organizers of the RM 40th anniversary are calling the celebration weekend a “resounding success” for Chatham-Kent, saying tens of thousands of people showed up for the celebration while $250,000 was raised for local charities.The three organizations benefiting from money raised at RM 40th and RetroFest were the Children’s Treatment Centre Foundation of Chatham-Kent, Chatham-Kent Hospice Foundation, and the Chatham-Kent Health Alliance Foundation.“We had such a great turnout this weekend and we not only raised a few eyebrows, but we raised an impressive amount of money for three charities that are very close to my heart,” said Rob Myers, founder of RM Sotheby’s, in a press release. “I’m beyond thankful to all the organizations and volunteers that got involved and to make this truly the best collector car weekend that Canada has ever seen.”Of the thousands who attended the weekend’s events, organizers estimate that 25,000 out-of-towners visited the RM grounds on Saturday.“The RM 40th anniversary was one of the biggest events Chatham-Kent has ever seen,” said Fannie Vavoulis, RM 40th’s event chair. “I’m very thankful of our community for coming together and enjoying it all safely and happily.”Chatham-Kent Mayor Darrin Canniff said seeing people come together and raise funds for the community made him proud.“It was an amazing weekend,” he said. “It couldn’t have been better.”Related
Here’s another reason to resent your kids for the sweet three-month break they get every summer. Your WALLET takes a pretty good hit . . . Almost two-thirds of parents start planning activities for their kids before summer hits. But 45% said they’re pretty much out of ideas by August. That includes $319 on toys and activities to keep them occupied while they’re not in school. Plus another $176 to take them with you on trips and vacations. So it doesn’t even include stuff like extra money you have to spend on daycare or babysitters. 9% of parents said they start saving up for summer at least six months in advance. And 35% usually end up strapped for cash by August or September. The average parent said they suggest 13 different activities a week for their kids over the summer. And that’s still not enough. On average, kids are bored and don’t know what to do by about 1:30 every day. According to a new survey, it costs an average of $495 to keep your kid happy and entertained over the summer.
A 14-year-old has serious injuries after crashing his ATV southeast of Mexico in Martinsburg.Highway Patrol troopers say the teen drove through a stop sign at First and Jefferson streets at 1:21 p.m. Sunday and crashed into an ag sprayer.The boy was flown to a Columbia hospital. The man driving the ag sprayer was not hurt.
When it comes to scientific research, processing power is everything. And two European research organizations have found the processing power their demanding applications need in the Intel® Xeon® processor 7500 series.Switzerland’s CERN openlab is a framework for evaluating and integrating cutting-edge IT technologies and services in partnership with industry, focusing on future versions of the World-Wide Large Hadron Collider Computing Grid* (WLCG*). Through close collaboration with leading industrial partners, CERN acquires early access to technology before it’s available to the general computing market segment. Recently, CERN openlab tested servers based on both the Intel® Xeon® processor 7500 series for use with its Large Hadron Collider* (LHC*) and infrastructure services.The tests showed that Intel Xeon processor 7500 series offered a stunning 3x performance improvement over the Intel® Xeon® processor 7400 series.“We make our decisions based on price, power, and performance against our benchmarks and per server,” explained Olof Barring, head of facility planning and procurement for the CERN IT Department. “The Intel Xeon processor 5600 series met the criteria we look for across these areas.”In France, the Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul des Ephémérides (IMCCE) researches and charts celestial mechanics and the dynamics and astrometry of solar system objects. It uses an application called TRIP*, an interactive computer algebra system specially adapted to celestial mechanics. To increase the performance of TRIP, IMCCE implemented HP ProLiant* DL980 G7 servers powered by the Intel Xeon processors 7500 series. IMCCE benchmarked the Intel Xeon processor 7500 series against its existing servers and used Intel® C++ Compiler and Intel® vTune™ Performance Analyzer to optimize the TRIP code and trace any potential performance bottlenecks.“The Intel Xeon processor 7500 series clearly made a significant difference to the speed and number of calculations we could carry out,” said Mickaël Gastineau, research engineer at IMCCE. “Furthermore, we gained more computing variables and also moved from batch processing to interactive processing.”To learn more, read our new CERN and IMCCE business success stories. As always, you can find these, and many others, in the Intel.com Reference Room and IT Center.*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
Andrew Haddow William Bearcroft injected himself with Zika virus, offering the first solid evidence that it caused disease in humans. Zika virus co-discover Alexander Haddow at the Uganda Virus Institute circa 1960 when he was lab director. Cases of traveler-associated Zika began to mount: A Norwegian who vacationed in Tahiti, a Canadian who went to Thailand, Japanese tourists who visited Bora Bora, an Australian who explored the Cook Islands, a German who returned from Malaysian Borneo.The first published report of “autochthonous” cases in Brazil—meaning they were not imported—appeared in June 2015. Eight patients, who all were infected a few months before and were deemed to have a “dengue-like illness,” had confirmed cases. “Although most of the patients had mild illness, clinicians and public health officials should be aware of the risk of expansion of this new emerging virus, especially given the naïve immunological status of the Brazilian population,” the authors cautioned, noting the neurological complications seen in French Polynesia.A few months later, Brazilian clinicians started reporting an unusually high number of babies born with small heads, a telltale sign of microcephaly.The rest is history.See more of Science’s coverage of the Zika virus here. For nearly 7 decades, the Zika virus would remain a virological curiosity, receiving little more attention than other obscure members of the Flaviviridae family that are transmitted by mosquitoes, such as Spondweni, Wesselsbron, and Ntaya. But now that it appears as though Zika might be causing serious harm to babies in Brazil, the World Health Organization has deemed it a “public health emergency of international concern.” It’s fast earning the reputation of the scariest virus on the planet. And the recent explosive spread of Zika around Latin America and the Caribbean serves notice, yet again, that remote places are no longer as remote as they used to be—so expect ever more exotic pathogens lurking in nature to become commonplace.The Uganda Virus Research Institute in Entebbe, located 11 kilometers northeast of the Zika Forest, just after the end of World War II carried out the meticulous work that isolated the pathogen du jour. The researchers included a Scottish virologist, George Dick of the National Institute for Medical Research in London, and two former members of the Rockefeller Foundation in New York City, Stuart Kitchen and Alexander Haddow. They waited until September 1952 to publish their findings, which appeared in back-to-back papers in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. In addition to experiments with more rhesus monkeys and mice, their exhaustive studies put the Zika virus into grivet and red tail monkeys, cotton rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits. The virus caused damage to neurons only in mice. Six of 99 humans they tested in four different Ugandan locales had antibodies to their new bug, but none showed evidence of disease.As one of the two papers drily concluded: “The absence of the recognition of a disease in humans caused by Zika virus does not necessarily mean that the disease is either rare or unimportant.” Nothing more appeared in the literature about Zika virus infections of humans until 1964 when David Simpson, a student of Zika co-discoverer George Dick, reported that those first two cases likely were not Zika but its close relative, Spondweni. What’s more, Simpson, who was working in the same Entebbe lab that discovered the virus, claimed that he had evidence of the first actual human case: a 28-year-old European male—yes, David Simpson—who had been in Uganda for 2.5 months when he became ill while working with Zika strains isolated from mosquitoes.Simpson’s symptoms were distinct from the others in one key way: he had a “diffuse pink maculopapular rash which covered the face, neck, trunk and upper arms” and that eventually spread to all four limbs, the palms of the hands, and the soles of the feet. It did not itch, he reported, but the rash lasted for 5 days. He described the disease as “mild,” and noted that there was no “crippling bone pain” as occurred with three other mosquito-borne viruses: dengue, chikungunya, and o’nyong-nyong.When Simpson inoculated mice with his blood, they became sick and some died. He passaged blood from these mice into the brains of other mice, harvested that “material” and tested antibodies against Zika and 11 related viruses—including Spondweni—to see which stuck. He had Zika, no question. “If this was a typical infection with Zika virus it is not surprising that under normal circumstances the virus is not isolated frequently from man,” he wrote.Nearly a decade would pass before another report of a human Zika infection appeared and, once again, it was a lab worker, this time in Mozambique with Portugal’s Institute of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. In the 1973 paper, published in the German journal Archiv für die gesamte Virusforschung (Archive for the Entire Virus Research), C.M.V. Martins described his symptoms as fever with some pain in joints, but no rash. He recovered completely after 1 week.According to Martins and co-authors, scientists had by then isolated 312 “arboviruses”—meaning spread by arthropods like mosquitoes and ticks—82 of which caused human infections, yet all but 39 were rarely observed diseases. “Thus, the knowledge of the pathogenic potential of about half of the arboviruses capable of causing symptomatic disease in humans has been acquired mainly from the study of laboratory infection,” they concluded. In other words, you needed lab accidents to understand disease.Loads of countries began reporting evidence of Zika antibodies in humans and wild monkeys in the 1970s and 80s, but documented cases of people with disease remained scarce, with scattered reports of human Zika virus infections trickling in from Nigeria and Indonesia. Then nothing until 2007, when physicians on Yap Island in the Federated Republic of Micronesia noticed an outbreak of a disease that resembled mild cases of dengue but was distinct, in part because people had a rash. A report of this outbreak in 2009 for the first time earned Zika a slot in a high-profile publication, The New England Journal of Medicine. As the authors noted, “No outbreaks and only 14 cases of human Zika virus disease have been previously documented.”The paper documented 49 confirmed and 59 probable Zika cases.But household surveys of 557 people found Zika antibodies in 74% of the islanders. The researchers estimated that some 5000 people had been infected, and that 900 of them had illness “attributable to Zika.” No one was hospitalized, and no one died. No mosquitoes, surprisingly, were found with the virus.Odd case reports soon followed. Two U.S. scientists diagnosed in Colorado were apparently infected in Senegal, and one of them infected his wife, presumably through sex, when he returned home; they only thought to test for Zika because of a chance meeting with a grandson of Alexander Haddow, one of the researchers who discovered the virus. A U.S. Navy research station in Cambodia detected a case in a 3-year-old boy. A 52-year-old woman in Australia was diagnosed after returning home from a holiday in Indonesia. Then in 2013, an outbreak walloped French Polynesia, with 333 confirmed cases and an estimated 19,000 suspected others. For the first time, the disease was associated with serious symptoms: mainly neurological disorders, including Guillain-Barré syndrome, which sometimes causes a temporary paralysis, and, in rare instances, is deadly. Two babies also were infected in utero or during delivery, but neither had lasting health problems. Andrew Haddow climbs one of the towers in the Zika Forest that his grandfather Alexander used to help discover the virus. On 18 April 1947, a rhesus monkey that researchers identified as 766 ran a fever of 39.7°C, about 2°C higher than normal. The monkey was part of a study hunting for yellow fever virus and was living in a cage on a platform built into the tree canopy in the 1.5-kilometer-long Zika Forest, which runs adjacent to an arm of Lake Victoria in Uganda. Three days later, the investigators took a blood sample from Rhesus 766 and injected it into the brains of Swiss albino mice. The mice “showed signs of sickness” after 10 days, and the researchers harvested their brains, from which they isolated a “filterable transmissible agent.”Come January of the following year, the same researchers trapped mosquitoes from these canopy platforms and took their bounty back to the lab, hoping to isolate yellow fever virus. Others had shown that one of these species they caught, Aedes africanus, shuttled the yellow fever virus, so the investigators put 86 of the insects in a refrigerator to “render them inactive” and then ground them up in a blood-saline solution, which they again injected into the brains of mice. The animals “appeared inactive” after 7 days, and tests showed they harbored the same transmissible agent that had sickened Rhesus 766.The researchers called their “hitherto unrecorded virus” Zika.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) Courtesy of Thomas Monath Andrew Haddow The same journal would publish 10 of the 24 total Zika studies that appeared in the scientific literature over the next 30 years, including a 1954 paper that attempted to link the virus to an epidemic of jaundice in Nigeria. The data in this study by esteemed virologist Francis Macnamara were sketchy and the correlations weak, save for the detail that 50 of 84 people tested had antibodies against the strange agent—the first clue that it was widespread. Mice also became ill when injected with Zika-antibody-positive serum taken from one 10-year-old girl who had a temperature of 38.2°C and a headache. But she did not have jaundice.Confused by the results, medical researcher William Bearcroft decided to take matters into his own hands—literally. As he reported in September 1956, a 34-year-old European male who had been living in Nigeria for 4.5 months—that would be Bearcroft himself—injected into his arm a suspension of Zika-infected mouse brain used in the 1954 study. Eighty-two hours later, Bearcroft had a headache and a slight temperature.Curious about the route of viral transmission, on the 5th day after the injection—by which time his symptoms had disappeared—Bearcroft put a batch of female A. aegypti mosquitoes on his left forearm, and 95 of them became engorged with his blood. He did this two more times over the next few days and then put some of the mosquitoes on baby mice and ground up others, injecting them into the rodents. Nothing happened.Bearcroft suggested that his symptoms resembled those seen in the 10-year-old girl. “Whilst no conclusions can be drawn from an experience limited to two cases, it should be noted that in those which represent the only proved examples of the human disease no evidence of jaundice appeared,” he wrote.